Association Issues

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From time to time, specific issues will arise that seem to cross the country at the speed of the internet and create problems or concerns for condominium and homeowner associations. On this page we’ll try and track the news items and articles as they arise.

Pokemon

  • Of Condominium Associations and Pocket Monsters (Pokemon) October 3, 2016 During Summer 2016, the Pokémon GO game for smartphones took the world by storm – leveraging novelty and nostalgia to get millions of Americans up off the couch and out of doors in ways that create important legal issues for condominium associations and other owners of real property.  In principle, augmented-reality location-based smartphone games have been available for almost all Americans since Google’s Niantic Labs released its title Ingress in 2014. Augmented reality (AR) is a live view of a ...
  • Coal Harbour condo dwellers call Pokemon pest control September 12, 2016 Residents of a Coal Harbour condo building are now free of pesky Pokestops after complaining to the City of Vancouver and their MLA, as well as to the company that makes the popular augmented reality game.  “Their concern was there were four Pokestops right around the entrance to their building,” said Spencer Chandra Herbert, MLA for Vancouver-West End.  The situation was leading to crowds of anywhere between 10 and 50 people on the grounds of the Bayshore Drive condo building, ...
  • Pokémon Go Class Action Says ‘Pokestop’ Disturbs Condo Residents (FL) September 6, 2016 The Pokémon Company, Nintendo Co. Ltd. and app maker Niantic Inc. are facing a class action lawsuit filed by a condominium association that claims its unwanted “Pokestop” designation has created a major disruption to its residents.  The Villas of Positano Condominium Association Inc. filed the Pokémon Go class action lawsuit last week in California federal court.  It is a nonprofit organization comprised of residents of the Villas of Positano, an oceanfront condominium complex located in Hollywood, Florida.
  • Pokémon, Zika and Marijuana Are Creating New Concerns and New Risks for Condo Associations September 1, 2016 The risks confronting condo associations are generally well-known. Although there are always variations on old themes, the risk fundamentals don’t tend to change much from year to year. But every now and then new risks emerge, like Loch-ness monsters from the deep, to threaten condo communities and challenge the boards and managers who oversee them. We have three new risks to add to association worry lists: Pokémon, Zika and Marijuana.      Read the article……………
  • For Many Condo Communities, Pokemon Go Quickly Becoming Pokemon No August 18, 2016 The issues arise both from nonresidents who are pursuing these animated characters and feel compelled to enter a property as well as from residents and their guests who are gallivanting through the hallways and common areas at all hours in their never-ending search for more Pokemon.  While some association complexes feature a manned security gate at the main entrance, many do not and visitors are able to drive onto a property without restriction.   Read the article……………
  • 3 Hidden Opportunities Your HOA Can Unlock by Playing Pokémon Go August 11, 2016 By now you’ve seen your share of Pokémon Go stories in the news. Some articles sing its praises—most notably getting kids out of the house—while others highlight the game’s perils, like turning people into zombies and causing vehicular crashes.  Not sure what to make of it? Here’s a quick rundown of the game and why Pokémon Go should be a go for your community association.     Read the article………….
  • Pokémon Go, What HOA’s Need to Know August 9, 2016 As technology changes, so must community associations adapt. On July 6, 2016, Nintendo and software developer, Niantic, released the new cellular phone game called, “Pokémon Go.” In the United States alone, an estimated 21,000,000 individuals use the application daily. During the inaugural week, Nintendo’s stock value increased by 120%. While there has been some retreat in valuation, at less than a month old, Pokémon Go became one of the most profitable and most popular games in history.   Read the article…………
  • Pokemon GO…. Away! Mobile game can spell headaches for private residential communities. August 8, 2016 After writing this blog for well over a decade, I often think that I have covered every conceivable topic which can impact shared ownership communities. Almost inevitably, just when I start thinking this is the case something new crops up like drones or, more recently, locating, battling and capturing virtual creatures called Pokemon.  Read the article…………….

Pokemon Archives

Fraud & Embezzlement

  • N4T Investigators: Residents fight HOA over possible missing money (AZ) May 23, 2017 Residents of the Cuernavaca Villas housing community say they want to know what happened to potentially hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of HOA dues.  Sources say the money was managed by their former HOA president.  However, when residents asked to see financial records, they say the former president abruptly resigned.  “He’s left us with absolutely no money. We’re just trying to keep the lights on,” said one resident who asked not to be identified.    Read the article…………….
  • Couple charged in Bradenton Beach condo fraud (FL) May 23, 2017 A former president and treasurer of Gulf Reach Condominium Association in Bradenton Beach have been charged with defrauding the Florida not-for-profit corporation of more than $50,000 over a six-year period.  Alyson Colosia, 51, and Javier Colosia, 53, who also own a condo in the 1300 block of Gulf Drive North, were arrested May 3 and charged with the first-degree felony.    Read the article……………….
  • Bahamas: Condo Owners Hit By Fraud, Says Court May 19, 2017 The Court of Appeal has quashed two separate settlements after finding “that a fraud has been perpetrated on the unit owners” at a Freeport condominium complex.  Appeal Justice John Isaacs, in a May 16, 2017, verdict backed by his two fellow justices, found that the initial consent Order determining who should pay for hurricane-related repairs to doors and windows at the Silver Point Condominium “cannot stand”    Read the article……………
  • Homeowners’ association prez admits to embezzling $300K; worked as civilian for NYPD May 17, 2017 A civilian employee of the Police Department, who as president of a Rossville homeowners’ association used the group’s checking account as his personal piggy bank by siphoning off more than $300,000, pleaded guilty Wednesday to grand larceny.  Danny Juliano was accused of embezzling $366,380 from the Woodbrooke Estates Homeowners Association between October 2011 and February 2015 and then claiming he bought pool supplies with the cash.    Read the article…………
  • Clearwater attorney disbarred for misappropriating funds (FL) May 16, 2017 Nicole Mae Frost, an attorney from Clearwater, has been disbarred by the Supreme Court of Florida after an investigation found the attorney culpable in mishandling and misappropriating client funds in two matters.  In both matters, Frost was the representative for two homeowners’ associations, Countryway Homeowners Association Inc. (Countryway) and The Greens of Countryway Homeowners Association Inc. (Greens).    Read the article………….
  • Help Your HOA Board Members Understand Crime and Fidelity Insurance May 9, 2017 While nearly all HOAs have some type of policies on the books, many HOA boards have little or no idea what type of insurance they have or need. This can potentially lead to expensive litigation and claims that can cost your homeowners association thousands, and sometimes even millions of dollars.  There are certain types of insurance your homeowners association should have including: building/property insurance, general liability insurance, director’s and officer’s insurance, workers compensation coverage, and fidelity insurance. The article excerpt ...
  • Property manager, company plead guilty to wire fraud (CA) May 6, 2017 A Ramona property manager and his company have pleaded guilty to wire fraud in concealing bids to a homeowners association involving improvements and asbestos removal.  Robert Walsh, 38, and his firm, Cornerstone Management Professionals Inc., will be sentenced July 7 in U.S. District Court in San Diego.    Read the article……………
  • Manatee teacher steals $134,000 from condo association May 5, 2017 A Manatee High School teacher is under investigation and facing charges of stealing from a condo association.  Alyson Colosia faces a scheme to defraud charge. Bradenton Beach Police say she and Javier Colosia served as president and treasurer of the Gulf Reach Condo Association.    Read the article……………

Fraud & Embezzlement Archives

Companion Animals

  • Service Animals & Your HOA May 29, 2017 No matter what your community’s pet policy is, service animals are almost always allowed. Unlike pets, service animals are not subject to the same rules, so here are some general things to consider when dealing with service animals.    Read the article…………….
  • HOAs and pitbulls as therapy dogs May 5, 2017 QUESTION: I live in an HOA, and our board has not been enforcing the provision of our declaration that prohibits pit bulls. On one occasion the board allowed a pit bull because the owner produced an “emotional support animal” certificate. The board says this information is confidential and will not relate any details to members. I would like to see this certificate. We have another owner that says her animal is not a “pit bull”, but a Staffordshire Bull Terrier. ...
  • Third Circuit: neighbors who criticized condo residents over emotional support dogs must face civil rights suit April 12, 2017 In blog posts and comments, two residents of a Virgin Islands condominium complex criticized two other residents who were (in line with rights prescribed to them under federal law) keeping emotional-support dogs despite a no-dog rule in the complex. Among other statements, one or the other of the two said dog owners would be “happier in another community,” speculated that “diploma mill” paperwork could certify any canine whose owner cared to claim stress, suggested the complex should “lawyer up” and ...
  • Accommodating disabilities: What medical evidence is required? April 8, 2017 It is well known that condominiums owe a duty to accommodate persons with disabilities. It is less clear, however, what constitutes adequate proof of a disability. Ambiguous medical notes containing no meaningful details are often the only documentation given to condo boards and managers, who must decide whether the legal threshold for disability is met.     Read the article…………..
  • Emotional Support Animals in Cooperative Apartment and Condo Communities: What Every Association and Owner Should Know April 7, 2017 An emotional support animal (commonly referred to as an “ESA”) is a companion animal (typically a dog or cat) that provides therapeutic benefit to an individual with a mental or psychiatric disability. An ESA is not the same thing as a “pet”. Rather, for a resident of a Coop or Condo who is living with a mental or psychiatric disability, an ESA may provide him or her with the opportunity to live independently.   Read the article…………….
  • Can Blogging Violate the Fair Housing Act?–Revock v. Cowpet Bay West Condo Ass’n April 1, 2017 This case is a collision between dogs as emotional support animals and a “no dogs” condominium association rule. The civil rights implications of a “no pets” rule are pretty obvious; such a rule can exclude the disabled. At the same time, we know that emotional support animals can be overclaimed, and we also know that the tiniest of disputes in condo/homeowners’ associations can easily mushroom into the Apocalypse.   Read the article…………

Companion Animals Archives

Flags

  • What are your flag-flying rights? May 29, 2017 In 2006, Congress enacted the Freedom to Display the American Flag Act of 2005, which prohibits homeowners associations, condominium associations and neighborhood associations from banning homeowners from displaying the American flag on their property.  The law, which was initially introduced in the US House by Maryland Rep. Roscoe Bartlett, was signed into law by President George W. Bush in July 2006.    According to the text of the law, “any reasonable restriction” may be placed on the time, place or ...
  • With Memorial Day, Flag Day and 4th of July right around the corner… let’s talk flags! (AZ) May 24, 2017 Neighbors are bringing our their Red, White and Blue in preparation for the upcoming patriotic holiday. Now is great time to review Arizona’s laws regarding flags in HOAs!  Arizona law is quite clear on this issue. Pursuant to Arizona law (A.R.S. Section 33-1808 (A) and (B) for planned communities and 33-1261 for condominiums), an association cannot prohibit the outdoor front yard or back yard display of the American Flag, or an official flag (or a replica) of the United States ...
  • 23 days: Woodstock HOA puts limits on displaying US flag (GA) May 23, 2017 Some Woodstock residents are furious with their homeowners’ association after being told they can only display the US flag 23 days a year.  The HOA at the Village at Town Lake sent an email to residents explaining that they could only fly the flag on specific holidays. That didn’t fly well with some residents.   Read the article……………..
  • Stars and gripes flying in this neighborhood flag dispute (FL) May 3, 2017 In his mind, Warren Erickson saw his collection of flags as an invitation to conversation and goodwill. Instead, a handful of neighbors are angry, his homeowner’s association is firing off new edicts and most of his flags have been permanently retired to a corner in his garage.  “There’s some friction around here, and I’m not sure why,” Erickson said. “It’s not like I’m flying the flag that ISIS flies.”  For the record, Erickson has an eclectic and personally meaningful rotation ...
  • Homeowner’s association tells Florida woman to take down Blue Lives Matter flag March 22, 2017 A Florida woman is being told to take down her Blue Lives Matter flag that’s been flying for several years now by her homeowners association.  Jeff Gaddie told Action News Jacksonville that his daughter has been flying the flag to honor him and many other family members who are law enforcement.  “She called to ask why,” Gaddie said. “They told her they had received a complaint that it was considered racist, offensive and anti-black lives matter,” he said.     Read ...
  • Can Your HOA Prohibit You From Flying Your Favorite Flag? March 15, 2017 Flags are common yard decorations; drive around any community and you’ll see everything from holiday flags to sports team banners. If you live in a planned development, however, hanging your favorite flag might result in a demand from your homeowners’ association (HOA) to take it down.  Can your HOA really ban you from flying a flag? The answer depends on what type of flag it is, where you live, and how you display the flag.    Read the article………….

Flags Archives

Short-term Rentals

  • Condo associations, HOAs must take steps to address Airbnb short-term rentals May 28, 2017 The issues created by short-term rentals facilitated by Airbnb and its competitors have been among the most pressing problem areas for condominium and homeowners associations during the past several years. While most community association governing documents prohibit short-term rentals, the enforcement of these restrictions has proved to be challenging and costly, and as a result, many association boards of directors and property managers are implementing strategic countermeasures and monitoring tactics.    Read the article………….
  • Condo owner shocked her unit was being sublet on Airbnb May 24, 2017 Even in Toronto’s tight rental market, Zenobia Omarali agreed to lower the rent for her tenant — the son of a former employee — when he moved into her spacious downtown loft two years ago.  And this past winter, when the tenant, Zeyadh Moosa, asked her to pay a pest control service to get rid of bed bugs — and replace his mattress — Omarali agreed.  She said Moosa told her the bedbugs “came through the walls, and it’s my ...
  • Court Ruling Delivers Setback to Community Associations Restricting Short Term Vacation Rentals (FL) May 23, 2017 The regulation of vacation rentals continues to be a hot button issue as companies like Airbnb.com and Vrbo.com are taking their fight to Florida’s legislatures and courts in order to open up Florida markets to their share economy businesses.  The vacation rental companies scored a victory in April when the Florida house passed HB 425 by a relatively narrow 63-56 vote. Pundits expected the pro-business and pro-property rights conservatives would push the legislation across the finish line. The legislation cuts ...
  • Netherlands: More Dutch homeowners associations ban Airbnb rentals May 16, 2017 An increasing number of homeowners associations have problems with Airbnb rentals, according to umbrella organization VvE Belang. A number of recent court rulings indicated that Airbnb rentals are not allowed without the permission of the homeowners association, and more and more are considering banning rentals to tourists, the organization said to BNR.     Read the article………….
  • City Files $1.2 Million Lawsuit to Shut Down “Airbnb Hotels” (NY) May 16, 2017 As of last week, not a single violation had been levied in the city’s hotbed of illegal sublet listings – East Williamsburg, Brooklyn – and only two had been issued in the entire borough. The city has issued a total of $284,000 in fines to 16 landlords citywide since the law went into effect in February. At the current rate of enforcement of the state’s new “anti-Airbnb” law forbidding advertising for short-term sublets, it will take the city 43 years ...
  • Airbnb in Condos: Focus on British Columbia May 10, 2017 As in Ontario and many other jurisdictions, Airbnb and similar short-term leasing web-based services are big business in British Columbia. While some condo communities have embraced Airbnbs, requiring owners to provide guest information to the concierge and charging user fees to pay for increased security, etc., other condo communities which are not suited to this type of enterprise, have been plagued by the downsides of Airbnb. Many stratas are unable to pass the required ¾ vote to implement a bylaw ...
 

Short Term Rental Archives

Displays, Signs, Free Speech – 1st Amendment Issues

The First Amendment Center maintains an archive of articles about cases involving community associations and the First Amendment.  Here is a link to their archive

  • State Legislature moved to restrict HOA controls over political speech (CA) May 10, 2017 The state Senate Judiciary Committee has unanimously approved a bill by Sen. Bob Wieckowski, D-Fremont, to prohibit California’s more than 50,000 homeowner associations (HOAs) from suppressing the freedom of speech and freedom of association rights of their residents.  SB 407 now heads to the floor for consideration of the full Senate.    Read the article……………
  • Stars and gripes flying in this neighborhood flag dispute (FL) May 3, 2017 In his mind, Warren Erickson saw his collection of flags as an invitation to conversation and goodwill. Instead, a handful of neighbors are angry, his homeowner’s association is firing off new edicts and most of his flags have been permanently retired to a corner in his garage.  “There’s some friction around here, and I’m not sure why,” Erickson said. “It’s not like I’m flying the flag that ISIS flies.”  For the record, Erickson has an eclectic and personally meaningful rotation ...
  • St. Johns County family projects ‘Blue Lives Matter’ flag on garage after HOA complaints (FL) April 22, 2017 Support for law enforcement officers is now proudly projected on a St. Johns County home.  The house once displayed a “Blue Lives Matter” flag.  “It doesn’t seem to quite be covered that a projector from a vehicle projecting on your garage door is a violation of the HOA,” Jeff Gaddie said.  He said the flag flew outside his daughter’s home in Samara Lakes for years.    Read the article……………
  • HOA cites homeowners for hanging rainbow flag to celebrate diversity (AZ) April 13, 2017 When Haycraft hung an American flag and a rainbow flag, which honors gay and transgender communities, inside a garage window to celebrate diversity.  The homeowner’s association sent him a letter five weeks later demanding Haycraft remove “unsightly items” from public view to keep the development “a beautiful, well maintained community.”    Read the article……………
  • Family debating HOA over Christmas wreath fine (NV) April 8, 2017 A man living in the Arroyo Canyon subdivision near the 215 Beltway and Hualapai Way says his homeowners association is threatening to fine him $100 over a decorative wreath.  Milan Thakkar says his wife picked out the wreaths to decorate their front door and make it less plain. They say it’s not a Christmas wreath, but their HOA sent a letter claiming they violated a rule that holiday decorations have to be taken down within 30 days of the holiday. ...
  • Hayden-area man with Christmas light extravaganza sues home owners association for religious discrimination (ID) January 19, 2017 A Hayden-area man with a Christmas light extravaganza is suing his home owners association for religious discrimination.  “I thought all that mattered was what rules say,” said Jeremy Morris. “I didn’t realize it kind of doesn’t matter because they still will do whatever they can to destroy you.”  The lawsuit, filed Jan. 13 in U.S. District Court asks for $250,000 to “compensate Mr. and Mrs. Morris fully for their shock, humiliation, embarrassment, inconvenience, and economic loss.”     Read the article………….
 

1st Amendment Archives

Energy & Water Conservation

  • Homeowners who let grass go brown to save water during California drought could face fines May 22, 2017 Homeowners who let their grass go brown to save money during the drought may have to turn the sprinklers back on, or else their HOA can fine them.  In April, Gov. Jerry Brown declared the drought over for most parts of California, lifting restrictions that kept homeowners associations from disciplining residents who stopped watering their grass to help save money and water.  However, those days are over, and HOAs are starting to require families to make all their grass green ...
  • Seminole County residents resist homeowners’ association demands to re-sod yards during drought (FL) May 11, 2017 A group of Seminole County residents are crying foul after their homeowners’ association has demanded they re-sod their browning yards during the worst drought Central Florida has seen in 100 years.  The homeowners told Channel 9 that they want their yards to look nice and they want to fix the problem, but that doing so in the middle of a drought seems like a waste of money and time.    Read the article…………..
  • Green Initiatives in Condos May 10, 2017 Most people these days are making a conscious effort to reduce their impact on the environment. Some activities are so common that they have become the norm. We recycle. We turn the lights off when we leave a room. Others activities, while currently less common, are rapidly becoming more popular, like electric and hybrid vehicles. While most boards want to be supportive of these new green initiatives, they also worry about satisfying their obligations to their condominiums. Well, the good ...
  • How One Neighborhood Saved Millions of Gallons of Water With Native Plants (CO) May 9, 2017 Don Ireland’s personal campaign to save water began when he moved to Colorado after years of working as a newspaper reporter. “I’m still curious about how things work,” he says. So when he started attending his homeowners association meetings and learned that more than 40 percent of their budget went to water bills, he decided to dust off his research skills from his reporting days and find out why.    Read the article……………..
  • University Place residents worried for water (FL) May 3, 2017 The future of one of University Place’s largest ponds remains mucky as it battles drought conditions and a failed water well.  The well in Pond 14 has collapsed and can’t refill the pond, which provides irrigation water to a section of homes within University Place.  The University Place Community Development District board on April 26 voted unanimously to approve a $19,500 contract with Parrish Well Drilling to cap off the old well and drill a new one for the lake. ...
  • How to Uncover Savings for Your Condo or Co-op Association with an Energy Audit – Energy Efficiency Part 2 May 2, 2017 In part one of our two-part series on energy efficiency, we discussed the growing trend of mandatory energy benchmarking for residential mid-rise and high-rise buildings. We also showed you how benchmarking can provide your condo or co-op association with valuable information about your energy usage. In this article, we examine the next step on the energy-saving journey: energy audits. Although only a few cities mandate energy audits for residential buildings (including Austin, New York and Atlanta), an audit can uncover ...

Energy & Water Conservation Archives

Nuisance

  • How to deal with nuisance smells in condos March 3, 2017 I recently had an issue arise at a condo association that is not terribly uncommon. An American couple of Indian ethnicity cooks with curry. Sometimes a lot. The odor wafted into a neighbor’s unit and he complained to the board. This can be tricky.  What constitutes a nuisance, including cooking smells, is generally left to the board, any board. Usually there is language in the documents, or there should be, that reads something like this: “No harmful or offensive use ...
  • 6 Common HOA Nuisances and How to Handle Them January 24, 2017 Nuisances complaints are a major cause of legal action in HOAs, both by and against homeowners. For those who might be unfamiliar with what exactly a nuisance is, a nuisance typically consists of one or more of the following issues:   Read the article…………….
  • Burnaby (BC) condo owners ordered to pay fines for ‘unacceptable’ behaviour April 11, 2016 A couple accused of screaming bigoted and obscene taunts at their neighbours and smearing dog feces on doors in their Burnaby condo complex have been ordered to fork over thousands of dollars in unpaid strata fines.      Read the article………..
  • What happens when resident vs. homeowners association? Ave Maria (FL) homeowner finds out April 8, 2016 In late March, Miami Management Inc., which runs the homeowners association on behalf of the development, threatened to sue Ospina if he continued to host the workouts, pointing to covenant agreements that are so common among neighborhoods and communities in the Naples area.   Read the article…………..
  • Explosions in the Sky March 17, 2016 Setting off fireworks is a bright, colorful way to celebrate certain special occasions. While most commonly associated with the 4th of July, it is not unusual for people to set off fireworks on New Year’s Eve and other holidays, as well. When the Seahawks won their first-ever Super Bowl in 2014, the Seattle sky was peppered with exuberant blue and green explosions—a night most of us won’t soon forget.    Read the article………….
  • Sydney mum threatened with $550 fine for noisy toddler in strata apartment March 7, 2016 A SYDNEY mum is furious after receiving a letter from her apartment building strata company threatening her with legal action unless she can stop her toddler from creating “excessive noise”.  Read the article…………

Nuisance Archives

Electric Vehicles

  • Electric vehicles. Is your condo ready? Part 2 of Condo Disruption Series April 28, 2017 Electric vehicles or EVs for short, are becoming more and more common on our roads with just about every car manufacturer offering a 100% electric vehicle or hybrid version. As more people purchase EVs, expectations that your condo parking lot or garage will have charging stations will increase. If someone owns a Chevy Volt and they’re looking for a new place to live, a condo that’s friendly to EVs becomes a huge selling advantage.    Read the article…………..
  • Where do I plug my Tesla? Part 1 of Condo Disruption Series April 28, 2017 If you think that disruption is only impacting taxi drivers and fast food workers, sorry folks, disruption is everywhere and that list includes changes that will impact the condo industry.  I recently worked for a ‘big-four’ accounting / consulting firm in Canada. As a casual outsider, you wouldn’t think they’d be a victim of “disruptive tendencies.” In the audit side of the accounting business, simple and time consuming tasks are being handled by folks in India for a fraction of ...
  • Electric Vehicles in Condos April 27, 2017 Today, in celebration of Earth Day (yes I know I’m late), I thought that I would write about an environmental issue that is becoming more common in condominiums: electric vehicles. An electric vehicle is one powered by electricity stored in rechargeable batteries instead of using traditional fuel sources, like gasoline or diesel. Some cars, called hybrids, use a combination of sources.   Read the article……………..
  • Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in HOAs – What Must Be Allowed? (CA) December 13, 2016 According to many sources on the internet, the production of Electric Vehicles will show a surge of 67% this year, and one can only imagine where this is going over time into the future. C’mon, you (as an HOA) don’t want to be the last holdout or the test case in court, do you? You (as an owner) have more rights than ever, but the onus is in many cases to be left on you to offer a solution to ...
  • What to Do With an Electric Car or Plug-In Hybrid When You Live In a Condo December 7, 2016 While the green lifestyle is very appealing to prospective EV owners, the ever important challenge of charging a car is hard to ignore. It’s pretty easy if you have your own house with a garage, but if you live in a condo or apartment, you may be wondering how to charge your own car at home. Fortunately, we have some ideas.  Whenever it’s time to talk about charging an electric car, we have to bring up the types of chargers ...

Electric Vehicle Archives

Smoking

  • Condo owner will do ‘whatever it takes’ to stop neighbours above spitting and tossing cigarettes May 8, 2017 After more than a year of unsuccessfully trying to get condo authorities to stop his neighbours from spitting and tossing cigarette butts onto his patio, Wayne Russell says he was driven to “an act of desperation” over the weekend.  “I went and grabbed a tarp from Home Depot and a can of paint and I just painted a big banner sign … and I tied it across my patio and I wrote on it a big message to my neighbours,” ...
  • Appeals Court Reverses Big Smoking Verdict Against Co-op (NY) May 8, 2017 A year ago, state Supreme Court Judge Arthur Engoron sent shivers through New York City’s co-op community when he ruled that Susan Reinhard, a shareholder at the Connaught Tower co-op at 300 East 54 Street, was entitled to $120,000 in back maintenance, interest, and attorney’s fees after she claimed secondhand smoke had permeated her apartment and rendered it uninhabitable.  Last week, the Supreme Court’s Appellate Division, First Department, overturned that verdict – even ruling that Reinhard is now on the ...
  • Condo boards brace for medical marijuana smoke complaints (HI) March 28, 2017 Right now there are some 13,000 medical marijuana patients registered in the state and that number is only expected to grow as the state’s first dispensaries open later this year.  Many of those patients live in condominiums and apartment complexes.  Industry watchers say complaints about marijuana smoke are on the rise. Two years ago lawmakers tried to set the framework to balance out one person’s medicinal need, with another’s right to be smoke-free.    Read the article…………..
  • No Ifs, Ands, or Butts: Regulating Smoking Within Community Associations March 20, 2017 The past twenty years have seen a dramatic uptick in the regulation of smoking, as dozens of states and hundreds of cities and counties have enacted laws making designated public places “smoke-free.” For its part, the North Carolina legislature passed an anti-smoking law in 2009 which prohibits smoking in restaurants and bars, as well as lodging establishments that serve food and drinks. While these kinds of smoking bans have become commonplace in local eateries and pubs, the issue has reached ...
  • The End of the Age of “Mad Men” March 17, 2017 The past twenty years have seen a dramatic uptick in the regulation of smoking, as dozens of states and hundreds of cities and counties have enacted laws making designated public places “smoke-free”.  For its part, the North Carolina legislature passed an anti-smoking law in 2009 which prohibits smoking in restaurants and bars, as well as lodging establishments that serve food and drinks. While these kinds of smoking bans have become commonplace in local eateries and pubs, the issue has reached ...
  • Condo owners have lots of thoughts on smoking issue March 11, 2017 Lots of readers wrote in with suggestions for those condo owners whose balcony and apartment interior were spoiled by cigarette smoke from their downstairs neighbors. Some suggested legal measures.   Read the article…………..

Smoking Archives

Medical Marijuana/Marijuana

  • Marijuana in Condominiums- My take on the issue (ON) May 4, 2017 Marijuana will soon be legal (for persons over a certain age). Growing marijuana at home, for one’s own consumption and limited to a certain number of plants, will also be legal. What does this mean for condominiums?  In terms of smoking marijuana on a condominium property, it seems to me that marijuana will be essentially the same as tobacco, subject to special rights surrounding “medical marijuana”. To me, here’s what this means:  Read the article……….
  • One Toke Over the Line – Smoking, Medical Marijuana and Fair Housing Laws May 1, 2017 Medical marijuana can now be legally prescribed in Florida, and the legislature continues to struggle with regulation of dispensaries in the State. Meanwhile, prescriptions can be filled in other States, for edible medical marijuana as well as the processed plant materials. At this point, low-THC products (with less of the chemical that causes the “high”) and CBD (cannabidiol) cannabis oil are available in Florida.  Most conversations related to the use of medical marijuana result in more questions than answers. And, ...
  • Are You Ready for MaryJane April 24, 2017 As community associations grapple with approving and enforcing rules and regulations, there is a new issue to consider. The use of cannabis in states where it is legal for medical or recreational use must be addressed. I am not qualified to offer any legal analysis, but as property managers, enforcing the rules is frequently a large part of our daily duties.     Read the article…………..
  • Is your Condo Ready for the Legalization of Marijuana? April 18, 2017 Last week, the government of Canada introduced legislation to legalize and regulate the possession, production and use of marijuana in Canada. What does that mean for your condo corporation? It may be time to update your rules.   Read the article………….
  • Condo boards brace for medical marijuana smoke complaints (HI) March 28, 2017 Right now there are some 13,000 medical marijuana patients registered in the state and that number is only expected to grow as the state’s first dispensaries open later this year.  Many of those patients live in condominiums and apartment complexes.  Industry watchers say complaints about marijuana smoke are on the rise. Two years ago lawmakers tried to set the framework to balance out one person’s medicinal need, with another’s right to be smoke-free.    Read the article…………..
  • Marijuana Statute (MA) Raises Questions about Condo Insurance Coverage and Employment Rules March 24, 2017 Proponents of the new state law permitting recreational use of marijuana, and the voters who approved it, viewed the measure as a long overdue move to put marijuana in the same category as alcoholic beverages ? no more or less harmful and no more or less subject to abuse than beer and wine. Voting ‘yes’ for marijuana was relatively easy; dealing with the avalanche of legal, political and administrative questions the law has triggered is far more difficult.   Read the ...

Medical Marijuana/Marijuana Archives

 Guns

  • Handgun Regulation in Community Associations March 10, 2017 An entire textbook and law school class could be devoted to the topic of handgun regulation. This article will focus on two recent United States Supreme Court (“Court”) decisions, briefly discuss some of the ways in which the Court’s decisions could apply to community associations, and identify practical issues that a community association should consider before embarking on any attempt to restrict handguns in its community.   The Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states.  A well-regulated Militia, being necessary ...
  • Community Associations and the Second Amendment February 8, 2017 The Second Amendment to the United States’ Constitution guarantees individuals the right to keep and bear arms. The Florida constitution contains a similar guarantee. With few exceptions, Florida law allows licensed individuals to carry concealed firearms in most public locations. Based on these constitutional and statutory rights under U.S. and Florida law, many owners residing in community associations believe that they also have the right to conceal-carry firearms when on their community’s common elements.    Read the article…………..
  • Open carry at the condo? (NH) January 6, 2017 “A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.” U.S. Constitution, Second Amendment.  The Constitution is, of course, federal law, so one might think an outright prohibition against arms would be limited only to the federal government. But through the 14th Amendment to the Constitution, it applies to state governments as well. Further, the matter of bearing arms appears in the New ...
  • Defending (My) Our Castle: A Look at Gun Regulation by Community Associations December 14, 2016 On September 6, 2012, David Merritt, president of the Spring Creek Homeowners Association, called a homeowners association meeting to order. Approximately 30 minutes later, Merritt, and former president of Spring Creek Marvin Fisher, would be fatally shot by their neighbor, Mahmood Hindi. The dispute between Hindi and Spring Creek involved an unapproved driveway and fence installed by Hindi. Hindi was charged with murder, but committed suicide in jail prior to his trial. The Hindi case may not be familiar to ...
  • Ask a Real Estate Pro: HOA can’t ban firearms in homes (FL) November 11, 2016 Q: Some of the board members in our community are considering a rule that no firearms can be kept anywhere on the grounds, including in our own homes. Can they do this?    Read the Q&A…………..
  • Can Your Condo Prohibit Firearms on Common Property? (ON) March 22, 2016 I recently stumbled upon an interesting blog out of Florida, where the author discussed whether a Community Association can prohibit firearms on common areas. The author discussed the required trade off between individual rights and the greater common good of the condominium community. The same balancing act applies here, north of the 49th parallel, but thankfully the discussion does not involve guns and other firearms.     Read the article………….

Guns Article Archives

Violence in Associations

  • How to Handle a Bully in Your Community May 9, 2017 Search the term “bullying” on the internet and an array of corresponding stories and images will appear ranging from politicians to school accounts and social media trolls. Recognizing, understanding, and managing bullies has become even more important as the internet has added an additional platform for bullies to practice their power dynamic and attacks. Regardless of the platform, bullies are usually repeat offenders and do not “self-heal,” so understanding strategies to protect and defend yourself, your homeowners, your vendors and ...
  • Chelsea condo heightens security over crazed resident (NY) May 1, 2017 A tony Chelsea condo building had to hire extra security to protect residents and staff from an overzealous condo board member, according to its management company.  In a letter to the residents of London Terrace Towers — which include “The Sopranos” creator David Chase — the company claimed that Lloyd Van Praagh had “engaged management in ways that can be construed as harassment,    Read the article………….
  • Homeowners president head-stomped by robber in Broward County (FL) April 24, 2017 An attempt to quell a noisy group outside his residential complex caused a homeowners association president to suffer a brutal, head-stomping robbery.  Arthur Burns, 61, president of the Villas of Lakeview Homeowners Association, suffered multiple injuries in the Nov. 4 attack caught on surveillance video. He recently reviewed the footage and said on Wednesday it stunned him.  “It scared me because I realized how close I came to getting killed,” Burns said.    Read the article…………….
  • Deputies: HOA president arrested for threatening men with gun (FL) April 15, 2017 An HOA president is facing criminal charges for threatening a father and his son with a gun in an Orange County neighborhood.  The incident comes amid the fallout over the death of Trayvon Martin. George Zimmerman said he was acting as a neighborhood watch volunteer when he shot the teenager.  Police say the HOA president used a gun to threaten the two in an Oakland neighborhood. Officials say the HOA president believed the two were trespassing.    Read the article…………
  • Fight about truck with HOA president gets man arrested (FL) April 10, 2017 A man upset that a Jupiter homeowners’ association had towed his truck was arrested last week after entering the group president’s home and threatening to retaliate, town police said.  John Whitelock Tellam of Miami faces charges of simple assault and burglary on an unoccupied structure in the incident, which took place Wednesday at the Coppola Villas on East Riverside Drive, north of the Loxahatchee River and west of U.S. 1.      Read the article…………..
  • Man cooking turkey in charcoal pit accuses HOA board member of assault (FL) March 29, 2017 A man who had dug a pit, filled it with charcoal and was cooking turkey next to the pool at a development in the 400 block of Ocean Trail said he was attacked by another resident. He claimed the man, who was a board member, said it was against association rules. The man said when he told the board member that when he finished the turkey he would fill the pit back in and replace the grass he was attacked ...

Violence in Associations Archives

Security

  • Northwest Austin neighborhoods pay out of pocket for more police (TX) May 27, 2017 Concerns over speeding and code enforcement have led at least three Northwest Austin neighborhoods to pay for extra law-enforcement patrols.   On top of its individual tax contributions to the city’s police budget, the Balcones Village/Spicewood Homeowners Association—located west of US 183 and south of Anderson Mill Road—pays the Travis County Constable’s Office to deploy off-duty officers to the 1,100-home neighborhood in an effort to increase the safety of its streets.   Read the article……………..
  • 4 Common Homeowner Association Security Errors to Avoid May 25, 2017 Homeowners associations (HOAs) are more popular than ever. In 2015, 66.7 million Americans were members of a homeowners association, equivalent to 20 percent of the population, a Community Associations Institute study found. Unfortunately, the growth of homeowners associations has made them a more attractive target for burglars. Why? Seventy percent of HOAs are managed by elected volunteers, says HOA-USA.com, meaning that most HOA managers are amateurs at security. Here are four of the most common security mistakes homeowners associations make, ...
  • Does Your HOA Board Have a Policy for Home Security Systems? May 22, 2017 We know you want to feel safe at home and you should. Maybe you have tried trimming foliage, increasing exterior lighting and are considering installing a home security system to feel more secure. Before you invest in a high-tech home security system, there are a few things to consider. Personal safety and privacy are two ideals everyone wants in a homeowners association community, but they can collide. Association policies made by the HOA board weigh both of these concerns, while ...
  • HOA fines traffic offenders; videotapes residents (FL) May 19, 2017 Charles Rivers and Rachael Bagby both say their homeowners’ association fined them for rolling through a stop sign.  “I admit it, I ran the stop sign,” said Bagby. “I’m not perfect, I’m human.”  “You know at the end of the day, you know, we did the violation,” said Rivers.  Both admit they were wrong for not coming to a complete stop. But neither one of them expected what happened next. They were each fined $100, and the ticket wasn’t given ...
  • Cyber Security for your Community Association May 18, 2017 It is always a good idea to maintain security both as individuals and as HOA and condo associations. In this technological age, people are more vulnerable and susceptible to being hacked. Just as you would lock your doors and protect yourself in the real world, it is important to secure your belongings in the cyber world as well.    Read the article……………
  • Package Theft in your Community May 17, 2017 While worse during the holiday season, package theft is a year-round concern for anyone who shops online. Unfortunately, but not surprisingly, there are people who drive around communities looking for unattended boxes sitting on porches. If you or anyone you know has ever had a package stolen, you know the frustration it causes.  Since this threat is a reality for every community, we encourage you to be mindful of the below tips to avoid package theft with your homeowners:   ...

Security Archives

Infrastructure Problems

  • State orders Fayetteville dam breached as neighbors spar (NC) May 26, 2017 State regulators plan to breach a Fayetteville neighborhood dam because the owners have failed to make repairs after several warnings.  On May 2, the N.C. Department of Environmental Quality declared an emergency that allows it to breach the 10-acre lake off Gables Drive in the Country Club Hills subdivision, which is off Country Club Drive near Ramsey Street.  The primary owner is the Country Club Hills Homeowners Association, a cash-strapped group that was unable to decide whether to repair the ...
  • To avoid significant rate hike, Green Acres attempts move away from privately-owned sewer system (IN) May 17, 2017 A measure is underway to save Green Acres subdivision residents from a sewer rate hike of nearly $40 per month, though a slight increase could still be inevitable.  The Howard County Board of Commissioners this week approved a petition to add Green Acres to the Taylor Regional Sewer District, the first step in removing the subdivision’s residents from a privately-owned sewer system scheduled for a significant increase.    Read the article……………
  • Elkhart County Council approves $250,000 for Simonton Lake dredging (IN) May 15, 2017 he Elkhart County Council Saturday approved giving $250,000 to the Simonton Lake Area Homeowners Association for sediment removal and promised $125,000 more once a watershed management plan is created.  The money will come from the county’s storm water fund.    Read the article……………
  • Drainage dilemma threatens family’s home (AL) May 12, 2017 Repair estimates to put in a proper drainage system run $60,000 according to Whitaker. Something she says she could never afford to do on her own.  A Jefferson County judge is expected to rule this month, whether Whitaker’s lawsuit can go forward against the HOA to force other homeowners to share the repair costs.    Read the article…………..
  • Norman leaders consider purchasing private dam (OK) May 10, 2017 Norman city leaders are considering the purchase of a private dam.  Councilors and attorneys met in executive session Tuesday to talk about buying Misty Lake Dam.  The dam sits at the Summit Lakes Addition a private property. It has been the source of problems for several years and is considered a hazard by the state.     Read the article…………….
  • Homeowners’ group wants road deeded to township (PA) May 8, 2017 Other than wanting to help resolve the matter, Kennett Township officials say they “don’t have a dog in the fight” among neighbors on Black Rock Hill Road.  The Kennett Township supervisor’s meeting Wednesday night had a nearly empty official agenda — only two escrow releases, among the most routine tasks a board of supervisors performs.  Then came the public comment section, in which Joseph and Dianne Duffy, residents of Black Rock Hill Road, asked the supervisors what progress or decisions ...

Infrastructure Archives

Religion

In addition to the items below and their archive, we have begun to create specific pages with more and deeper resources.  Visit the page for Community Association Religious Issues

  • Court: Senior Citizens Can Seek Punitive Damages in Religious Discrimination Suit Against HOA May 24, 2017 A court has rejected the latest attempt by a homeowners’ association to shield itself from punitive damages for shutting down Bible studies and a Sunday worship service.   Read the article………….
  • Judge rules that religious organization must remove structure it built in Towson neighborhood (MD) April 14, 2017 A Baltimore County Circuit Court judge has ordered that a controversial 6,614-square-foot structure a religious organization built in a residential neighborhood in Towson must come down within the next year.  The decision is the latest in a legal battle between Friends of Lubavitch Inc. and the organization’s neighbors in the community of Aigburth Manor, who say that the structure the organization built at 14 Aigburth Road is out of character with the neighborhood, has decreased the value of surrounding property ...
  • Spring Valley lifts religious prohibitions on condo complex (NY) March 23, 2017 The village has agreed Park View Condominiums has a constitutional right to have a synagogue and other ritual uses at the 61-home complex on Main Street and Maple Avenue, which may lead to the dismissal of pending building violations, village lawyers said.  As a private business, the government cannot restrict Park View owners from having a house of worship or other religious uses inside the complex, as long as all zoning and safety regulations are met, the village’s legal counsel, ...
  • Condominium Owners’ Meeting on Muslim Holiday – Was this Discrimination? February 28, 2017 A condominium corporation found itself before the Ontario Human Rights Tribunal (Kamal v. PCC No. 51) after several unit owners alleged that the corporation had discriminated against them on the basis of creed, by holding an owners’ special meeting on an important Muslim religious holiday.  Major repairs to the tune of $2,000,000 were required to repair the corporation’s common element balconies and exterior walls. Unfortunately, there was only $200,000 in the corporation’s reserve fund. The need for the repairs was ...
  • Be True To Your Shul by “The Pool Praying” Continues At Deerfield Beach Condo Pool! January 14, 2017 In a bit right from the late great radio legend Nell Rogers. Rogers amongst many funny comedy routines and bits had a song ‘Be true to your Shul” he played frequently.Here in Deerfield Beach Century Village East a controversy about a shul at the pool continues.”Be True To Your Shul by The Pool Praying Continues At Berkshire Condo Pool!  As Deerfield-New,com had previously reported a shul of sorts has been holding services at the Berkshire Pool. A common area for ...
  • City: Naperville woman can’t hold church services in her basement (IL) December 9, 2016 A Naperville woman who has been operating a small Christian church out of the basement of her townhouse has been asked to find another place to conduct services.  The planning and zoning commission this week unanimously denied Debra Richmond’s request for special permission to operate a church — classified as an institutional use — out of her townhouse in a residential area near 95th Street and Book Road.    Read the article………….

Religion Archives

Drones

  • Does Your Community Association Need a Drone Policy? April 10, 2017 As drone technology advances and the number of drones in the air increases, managers and board members in community associations are asking about drone policies. If drones are being used in your community or if there is a plan for their use, whether recreational or commercial, your board should adopt a drone policy.    Read the article………….
  • Residents of Florida HOA Speak Out Against Association’s Use of Drones April 5, 2017 The residents of the Concord Station community north of Tampa in Land O’Lakes, Fla. recently shared their complaints and confusion with a reporter from one of their local television stations over their HOA’s use of a drone equipped with a camera in their community.  The residents indicate in the station’s report that they received an online notice from their HOA alerting them that it would be flying the drone, which the association confirmed that it operated over the community in ...
  • How technology can save community associations time and effort March 22, 2017 When a community association manager needed to know how badly the property’s gutters were clogged, Nik Clark had a solution. He launched an unmanned aircraft system, otherwise known as a drone.  It flew above the building’s roofline, and Clark and the manager viewed aerial imagery on his smartphone.  Within minutes she had her answer.    Read the article………………..
  • Residents speak out against Pasco community HOA using drones March 17, 2017 Residents of a Pasco community are speaking out against the use of a drone by the community’s association, though they aren’t sure they have any real say in the matter.  Residents of the Concord Station community said they got a notice online alerting them that the homeowners’ association would be flying a test drone Tuesday. Officials with the community said a drone was used today at 200 feet instead 50 feet of because of the wind.    Read the article…………….
  • Florida Community Associations Responding to Soaring Popularity of Drones March 17, 2017 The growing use of drones by consumers across the U.S. is leading to the adoption of new rules and restrictions by the federal government, state governments and community associations. Questions regarding safety, property damage and privacy abound with drones, and associations are responding by establishing clear parameters for their use by unit owners.    Read the article…………..
  • Electronic Spying, Satellite Surveillance & Drones February 4, 2017 Science fiction! Actually not. Over the last several years, technology available to the homeowners association has exponentially grown. Drones have become the proverbial “Soup de Jour.” An increasing numbers of homeowners associations use drones to inspect common areas, architectural improvements, combustibles on balconies in high rises, etc. Is this good or bad? That depends on who you ask.  For associations with vast acreage, using drones to inspect the common area has become commonplace because it is less expensive and tends ...
  • TAKING FLIGHT – Drones in Our Community January 31, 2017 IF DRONES AREN’T ALREADY buzzing around your community, it’s highly likely they will be soon. Association board members, managers, attorneys, and insurance professionals, among others, need to get a handle on the new challenges and possibilities presented by drones.  An estimated 3 million drones were expected to fly off the shelves to hobbyists and businesses in 2016, according to the Consumer Technology Association. Roughly 550,000 have been registered by the federal government since last December, and an estimated 1.3 million ...
  • Tips to Handle Drones in Your Community January 23, 2017 Drone sales are on the rise. According to Business Insider, consumer drone shipments will quadruple in the next five years, as drones get easier to operate by beginners and competition causes prices to drop. In addition, big businesses like Amazon and Walmart are beginning to test pilot programs using delivery drones. This technology can cause a dilemma for communities. How can a community ensure safety? What about issues of privacy? Should damage to property occur, how is responsibility assigned?  All ...

Drone Archives

Hoarding

  • What are the Negative Consequences of Hoarding in a Community Association? May 23, 2017 Hoarding is a psychological condition where: 1) individuals have difficulty getting rid of possessions that are no longer useful; and 2) efforts to discard these possessions and not acquire new items cause distress. Television shows such as Hoarding: Buried Alive and Hoarders display in alarming detail the negative emotional and physical impact of this condition upon the individual with the hoarding disorder as well as his or her family and neighbors.     Read the article……………..
  • Kass: What can a condo board do if a unit owner is a hoarder? May 4, 2017 Q: I am the president of our midsize condominium. One of our owners is a hoarder. She won’t let us in to inspect her unit, but we have reason to believe it is cluttered with what she probably calls “collectibles”; I call it junk. What should we do?    Read the article…………….
  • How to Deal with Hoarders in Your Condo or Co-op November 10, 2016 Everyone loves to own things—sometime even many things. But occasionally, ownership of things can go too far and accumulation can grow problematic. In the modern parlance, a too-many-thing-haver is often referred to as a “hoarder,” an individual who can prove a burden for their neighbors, their property, and their community at large. In a condominium or cooperative where communal living is paramount, this can grow exceptionally troublesome, as property values are intertwined and one resident’s approach to – or disregard ...
  • Handling Hoarding in a Condominium Community November 2, 2016 Hoarding is becoming an increasingly common disorder that carries serious consequences for the afflicted, their family, and neighbors. Hoarding has the potential to attract rodents, create fire hazards, and can threaten the health of occupants. While hoarding is dangerous for anyone, it is especially problematic for condominium associations where residents live so close together. Rather than just affecting the occupants of a specific unit, it can also affect the neighboring units and common elements.    Read the article……………
  • Hoarding and Hoarders Must Be Handled With Care August 15, 2016 The problems posed by community association residents who hoard are complex and difficult to manage. Boards have to balance the legitimate concerns of residents affected by hoarding, while respecting the rights of residents who hoard, or who are suspected of hoarding.  The signs and symptoms of hoarding include foul odors, insects or rodent infestation, dirty windows, dirty or continually closed curtains and blinds, window obstruction from large pieces of furniture or stacks of boxes blocking window interior views. When uncontrolled ...
  • This Stinks! The Minefield Created By Hoarders June 17, 2016 They say one person’s trash is another person’s treasure. For those who are members of a condominium or townhome owners’ association, one person’s trash (or treasure) is often another person’s headache. A “hoarder” may be defined as one who accumulates material things for preservation or future use, often in a hidden or carefully guarded place.     Read the article………….
  • “HOA”rding Situations June 8, 2016 According to the International Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Foundation, a hoarder is someone who obsessively acquires too many possessions or has enormous difficulty discarding possessions when they are no longer useful or needed. When this type of behavior spirals out of control and threatens a person’s health or safety it becomes a hoarding “disorder”.     Read the article…………
  • Hoarding & Marijuana…. What’s an Association To Do? April 1, 2016 In addition to risks experienced by first responders responding to emergency calls, health problems include falls or accidents in the unit, clutter, garbage, animal or human feces, and the resulting mold or infestation can also cause respiratory and other health problems (Massachusetts Department of Health and Human Services ). In communities with common walls, hoarding also has negative impacts on the common elements including the physical deterioration of the walls and floorings, as well as noxious odors permeating neighboring units ...

Hoarding Archives